Finding Purpose In Life.

question-mark-1829459_1920Why am I here? What’s the purpose of my existence? These are legitimate questions. Not surprising, there are no shortage of literature on the subject—both Christian and secular. If you enter most Christian bookshops, the most popular titles on the shelves are those offering one motivation or the other on how to succeed in life, find your purpose, gain financial independence, become the best of your self or live your best life now. These titles are popular because the human heart craves for meaning and purpose in life. Indeed, there is purpose and meaning for our existence. We are not on earth by a cosmic accident or chance. There is a reason for our existence. No life is without a purpose.

Succinctly, the Westminster Shorter Catechism summarises this purpose as “to glorify God and enjoy Him forever”  (WSC Q&A1). We were created by God and the only meaning we can find is in Him. St. Augustine, in his confessions said “You have made us for yourself, and our hearts are restless, until they can find rest in you.” Unfortunately, many pursue what they call meaning and purpose differently from “glorifying God and enjoying him forever”. They seek rest for their restless hearts in different places — places which can’t satisfy. On the contrary, believers finds their life in Christ.

Jesus, at a point in His ministry, lost some disciples because He had said things which the Bible says they found as “hard saying”(John 6:60). These hard sayings made them walk away. Truly, there are many who will not accept truth and will walk away. When they walked away, Jesus turned to the remaining and asked “Do you want to go away as well?” (John 6:67). Simon Peter, speaking for the twelve responded,

Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life, and we have believed , and have come to know, that you are the Holy One of God (John 6:68).

Every believer must come to this point of acknowledging the all sufficiency of Christ for our life. In the words, “Lord, to whom shall we go?” Peter proclaims the Lordship of Christ and His exclusivity to eternal life. Beside Christ, there is no life in anyone else (Acts 4:12). Christ is life. He is the origin and ‘sustainer’ of every life. “All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made. In him was life, and the life was the light of men” (John 1:3-4).

In Psalms 73:25, David declared words similar to Peter’s: “Whom have I in heaven but you? And there is nothing on earth that I desire besides you”. This is a picture of a life which owes its existence and meaning to God. In praise, after God answered her prayer and she bore Samuel, Hannah similarly declared: “There is none holy like the LORD: for there is none besides [Him]; there is no rock like our God”(1Samuel 2:2)

To Peter and the other disciples, Christ was their sufficiency: “we have believed , and have come to know…” he said. What have they believed? That Christ is the Holy One of God. Most importantly, the believer must come to a point of faith and acknowledgement of the centrality of Christ to who they are — “The Holy One of God”; the only mediator between God and man; The one from whom we derive our existence and meaning!

A Most Often Misquoted Text: Matthew 6:33

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1: But seek first the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all these things will be added to you (Matt. 6:33 ESV)

2: But seek first the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all other things will be added to you (Matt. 6:33 ESV)

Compare 1 and 2. Do you see any difference? One is what Jesus actually said. Two is what people often say Jesus said. Jesus never said “all other things” shall be added unto you. If you are still not convinced; cross- check other translations. Most people I have encountered often quote Matt 6:33 as “all other things shall be added unto you” leading to a wrong interpretation and a wrong application.

Of course, if it is “all other things“, then we have the liberty to slot in all we desire eg good health, material wealth, marriage, visa to travel, a fat bank account etc. And that’s what those who quote “all other things” often do. But that is wrong.

What Jesus did say is “all these things shall be added unto you.” This is specific and has a context. It is not left open for us to put in everything we so desire. Vv. 25-31 of Matthew 6 reveals the context of “these things” and what Jesus was speaking about:

Therefore I tell you, do not be anxious about your life, what you will eat or what you will drink, nor about your body, what you will put on. Is not life more than food, and the body more than clothing? Look at the birds of the air: they neither sow nor reap nor gather into barns, and yet your heavenly Father feeds them. Are you not of more value than they? And which of you by being anxious can add a single hour to his span of life? And why are you anxious about clothing? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow: they neither toil nor spin, yet I tell you, even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. But if God so clothes the grass of the field, which today is alive and tomorrow is thrown into the oven, will he not much more clothe you, O you of little faith? Therefore do not be anxious, saying, ‘What shall we eat?’ or ‘What shall we drink?’ or ‘What shall we wear

Firstly, “food, drink and clothing” are the ‘these things’ Jesus was talking about. In other words, God is able to take care of us and provide for us the very basic things all human beings (believer and unbeliever) need. Secondly, because God is able to take care of our basic needs; so we don’t need to be anxious over these things. Christ draws a strong analogy from the birds of the air and flower of the fields to drive home his command against anxiety: “Look at the birds of the air: they neither sow nor reap nor gather into barns, and yet your heavenly Father feeds them. Are you not of more value than they?(v.26)

“Are you not of more value than they?” This should shatter our every proclivity towards worrying about life. God has guaranteed to take care of us. Unfortunately, if you worry and live in anxiety over the basics of life; you are just behaving like an unbeliever. They worry and chase these things as if “these things” are their very life and existence. But for the believer, God knows we need these basic things and we ought not worry and be anxious over them: “For the Gentiles seek after all these things, and your heavenly Father knows that you need them all (v.32). Christ then point us away from a lesser good–food, drink, clothing– to a greater good; seeking the Kingdom of God first. “But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness” (v.33). First things first. Take care of my kingdom and I will take care of you: “all these things shall be added unto you”. Our basic needs for life is guaranteed by God and we need not worry and be anxious in life.

Matthew 6:33 therefore is a command against anxiety and not a promise for us to seek God’s kingdom for material gains (c.f. 1Tim 6:5).

— Originally posted on The Gospel Network as Misquoting Jesus.

Belief Doesn’t Defy Logic: A Response To Pst. Otabil

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At the just ended Greater works conference, an annual conference of the ICGC, a Charismatic church in Ghana; one of the speakers–Matthew Ashimolowow  is reported to have called for a special offering for people to sow seeds of different amounts based on what they expect to experience in their life.

Millionaire status
$5,000.00
Seed of a thousand times more $1000.00
Seed of completion
$520
24hour miracle
$240
100% life improvement
$100
Seed of perfection
$70

*$1=Ghs4.3

This triggered an outcry on social media. The General overseer of ICGC, Pastor Mensah Otabil is reported to have responded in a sermon to his congregation saying:

Beliefs goes beyond logic. Logic will tell you what is probable or things being equal. Logic will tell you that if you have a thousand cedis in your account, then you can spend thousand cedis because that is logical. Beliefs will tell you that if you have five loafs of bread you don’t feed five people.

Concluding, he said “Belief defies logic; stretch your faith”

Now statements like this–“Beliefs defies logic”— gives Christianity and Christians a bad name. It suggests our faith is illogical and irrational. In the name of faith we are being told continuously to fossilise our minds. But as rational beings created in the image of a rationaI God; it will be irrational not to relate with this God in a rational manner. God makes sense and belief in him makes sense. God is a God of order and those who believe in him must do so in a manner consistent with how he has revealed himself in Scripture.

In this short article, I’ll attempt to give a reasoned response to Otabils defense of the infamous seed sowing at the just ended Greater works conference. Before I present my thoughts; let’s first define a few terms. Among many definitions, I will use what’s relevant to the discussion:

Belief: “conviction of the truth of some statement or the reality of some being or phenomenon especially when based on examination of evidence”

Logic: Logic is the science of deriving truth through the analysis of facts either directly (deductively) or indirectly (inductively).

From these definitions, I will argue  that Christian belief is logical. I will explain. You see, Christianity is not a collection of irrational thoughts stringed together for people to believe.  Christianity presents propositions rooted in historical evidence to be  examined so one can arrive at a logical conclusion of their veracity. We see this clearly evidenced in the opening words of Luke’s gospel.

Inasmuch as many have undertaken to compile a narrative of the things that have been accomplished among us, just as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word have delivered them to us, it seemed good to me also, having followed all things closely for some time past, to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus, that you may have certainty concerning the things you have been taught (Luke 1:1-4).

Luke’s words point us to the fact that Christian beliefs are coherent, logical and can be examined. Why did Luke write? so his recepient will come to a certainty–a conviction—of Christian beliefs. These beliefs are rooted in history and eye witness reports. They are not fables that can’t be examined. The apostle Peter tells us “For we did not follow cleverly devised myths when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of his majesty” (2Pet. 1:16ff).

The point is that, Christianity is not a blind leap into the abyss. It is faith based on historical evidence and in a God who is. Christian faith makes logical and rational sense. Paul consistently “reasoned from the Scriptures” (Acts 17:3). The problem with the so called special offering is that; they are not biblically consistent. It is a clear case of merchandising the gospel. Again, what’s the basis for the said categorisation? The only justification will be texts taken out of context to defend this lie. We see this clearly where Jesus’ multiplication of bread is cited in defence. Of course, Jesus is God and it is logical that God can work a miracle and multipy five loaves and two fishes to feed 5000.

Unfortunately it is such anti-logical approach to Christianity that makes people suspend their reasoning to believe in every nonsense shrouded in Christian jargon. And as I write this, many are defending this error, saying, “it is what you believe that works for you”. Well, Christian belief is not subjective belief for everyone to believe what they want to believe. Christian truth is rooted in biblical truth. There’s no biblical justification for the so called seed sowing that took place. It is false Christianity; a lie and fraud. A friend aptly describes the situation:

We are teaching people that they don’t have to follow the natural principles of work and earning. Even the Bible teaches that if you don’t work don’t eat. Paying $ 5000 to become a millionaire is called lottery, it has no place in Christianity — Kwesi Sena

Rev. Korankye Ankrah Erred About Denkyira-Boasi

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Image Courtesy Starfm online

About a month ago, the nation woke up in shock of the gruesome murder of a Captain of the Ghana Armed forces, Captain Mahama, who was mistaken to be an armed robber. Following this, a number of arrests were made of those involved in this heinous crime. He was subsequently posthumously promoted to the rank of a major.

Yesterday, I read a media report on Star Fm of the words of a clergy man, Rev. Korankye Ankrah necessitating this post. In the article, various statements were attributed to the Reverend who describes himself as an ‘Apostle General.

Speaking during a 30-day prayer and fasting event at Cedar Mountain Chapel Assemblies of God Church, East Legon, Rev. Sam Korankye Ankrah pronounced no youth will go past 33 years in the town – the age of Maj. Mahama when he was murdered in cold blood.

Rev. Ankrah, who serves as the Apostle General of the Royal House Chapel International, a church in Ghana with more than 30,000 members, also prophesied that there will be no leader in the town, having killed a commander of an army.

However, Rev. Ankrah, who is the first vice president of the Ghana Pentecostal and Charismatic Council, said the people of Denkyira-Obuasi can atone for their sins with a three-day special fasting led by men of God.

These words if indeed uttered by a minister of the gospel must be condemned. They are not words befitting a minister of the gospel. Reverend Ankrah erred in those words and his error cuts to the root of the gospel. Among many errors, I will address three.

Pronouncement of Curses

Among many definitions, a curse is defined as the expression of a wish that misfortune, evil, doom etc., befall a person, group, etc. We see the above definition clearly fitting the words of the Rev.. He pronounced a curse:

no youth will go past 33 years in the town – the age of Maj. Mahama when he was murdered in cold blood”

there will be no leader in the town, having killed a commander of an army.

What authority has Rev. Ankrah to determine the lifespan of those individuals? Only God has that authority and hence the minister is playing God by pronouncing a limit on the lives of the youths of Denkyira-Boasi.  No doubt, the people involved in the murder of Major Mahama have committed a sinful act.  They have broken the constitution of the land which upholds the dignity of all human life. Hence, the laws of the land must deal with their breach of the law as stipulated by Scripture (Romans 13:1-4). Not only have they broken the nation’s constitution. Most importantly, they have broken God’s command: “You shall not murder” (Exodus 20:13 ESV).

Their crime however doesn’t justify a curse from a minister of the gospel.  What the perpetrators of this crime need, just as any sinner needs, is the mercy of God and his forgiveness; not curses from a minister of the gospel. The Bible doesn’t teach Christians to curse: “From the same mouth come blessing and cursing. My brothers, these things ought not to be so” (James 3:10). How can a minister of the gospel preach the blessings of God and pronounce curses on people at the same time, how? (James 3:9).

Fasting To Atone For Sins.

What can wash away my sin?
Nothing but the blood of Jesus;
What can make me whole again?
Nothing but the blood of Jesus.

Oh! precious is the flow
That makes me white as snow;
No other fount I know,
Nothing but the blood of Jesus

–Robert Lowry

All human beings are sinners separated from God by virtue of our sins. The people of Denkyira-Boasi who were involved in this heinous crime are sinners acting out their natural inclination—sinning. They acted out what is in their heart just as every sinner (Jer. 17:9, Eph. 2:1-3).

Now, though separated from God by sin, God has not left sinners to their fate. Rather, he has provided for his own self an acceptable sacrifice by which sins are atoned for. He sent Jesus Christ to come and die to atone for the sins of humankind so whoever believes in him would be saved and their sins forgiven when they put their trust in Christ. However, the Rev. is asking sinners to do something they cannot do—atone for their sins.

the people of Denkyira-Obuasi can atone for their sins with a three-day special fasting led by men of God

This is a departure from essential Christian beliefs and it is troubling.  Sinners cannot atone for their sins by any act of theirs. Christ’s death on the cross is what atones for sins. And sinners are cleansed by faith in that finished work on Calvary. Nobody atones for their sins in Christian theology. Sinners, however heinous their crime must look to Christ alone and his finished work on the cross for the forgiveness of their sins. (1John 2:1-2, Romans 5:7-9, 11; Hebrews 1:3). It is futile therefore to call on sinners to establish their own righteousness by their works.

Human Mediators

The Rev. didn’t only call for fasting to atone for sins. He called for that fasting to be led by men of God (whatever that phrase mens). In effect, the people involved in Major Mahama’s murder need human intermediaries to go to God to plead their forgiveness. The Bible doesn’t teach this. Christ has been put forward by God as the propitiation for sins. He is the only mediator between God and sinners.

For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave himself as a ransom for all, which is the testimony given at the proper time (1Tim 2:5-6).

Rev. Korankye Ankrah is the General overseer of Royal House Chapel International, a Charismatic church in the nation’s capital, Accra and also the  the first vice president of the Ghana Pentecostal and Charismatic Council. His words therefore carry influence and such utterances as those he made are a serious breach of the truth of the gospel of Christ.

Faith And Conduct

Amos 5:21-24

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Among six key themes (from ESV Global Study Bible) of the book of Amos, two stands out for me.

1. Justice and righteousness in the treatment of other people are the key evidences of a right relationship to the Lord.
2. Religious observances in the absence of social justice are disgusting to God.¹

I find these two key themes present in the verses that follow. God says;

I hate, I despise your feasts, and I take no delight in your solemn assemblies. Even though you offer me your burnt offerings and grain offerings, I will not accept them; and the peace offerings of your fattened animals, I will not look upon them. Take away from me the noise of your songs; to the melody of your harps I will not listen (Amos 5:21-23).

Today, many profess faith but their profession contradicts their conduct. Should that be the case? Where profession of faith and conduct contradicts, there is a justification to question what one professes. Could it be possible that God has rejected many gatherings supposedly assembled in the name of God and yet we are unaware? Could it be that God has turned his ears away from our worship and considers many a congregations singing noise yet they haven’t discerned it?

How would we know if our worship is acceptable to God? I believe the answer is in the next verse: “But let justice roll down like waters, and righteousness like an ever-flowing stream.” (Amos 5:24). Where our life is not marked by justice and righteousness—a right treatment of one another and right conduct; our salvation may be questionable. Our Lord commands us to love one another and to not love the world (1Jn. 2:9-17). Paul says “If I speak in the tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I am a noisy gong or a clanging cymbal. And if I have prophetic powers , and understand all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, but have not love, I am nothing (1cor. 13:1-2).

You see, our faith and conduct are insperable. If we have faith, it must show in our conduct: “But be n doers of the word, and not hearers only, deceiving yourselves”!(Jam. 1:22).

Notes:
1. Introductory notes on Amos from The ESV Global Study Bible (Wheaton, Illinois:Crossway, 2012 ) Kindle edition

 

Did God Actually Say?

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Recently, there has been a rise of people in our country–Ghana– openly calling the claims of Christianity into question. Core doctrines such as the virgin birth, Heaven, Hell and the historicity of the person of Christ have all been called to question. The troubling part of this, is that, those involved are people we may consider influential in society and their influence has the ability to lead people astray.  Of all the religions of this world, why do these people pick on Christianity and the Bible? Numerous answers may be given. But I will briefly explore two.

Christianity Is The Truth

Christianity is the Truth: “Jesus said to him, “I am the way, and the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.” (John 14:6). One may ask, “how can Christianity lay exclusive claims to the truth; isn’t that arrogance? Andy Bannister, in an online article, “Isn’t Christianity Arrogant?” addressed the Truth of Christianity by appealing to the exclusivity of the nature of truth itself.  Matt Slick, on the apologetics website carm.org also appealed to the words of Jesus to establish the true nature of Christianity:

If Jesus is wrong, then Christianity is  wrong. If Jesus did not rise from the dead, then we should abandon our faith because he would be no different than anyone else. If Jesus is not God in flesh, then we should denounce him as a madman because you can’t claim to be God and be sane — unless the claim is true. Therefore, if what Jesus said about himself is true, then Christianity is true.

Now, granted Christianity is true (and it is), the devil, an opponent of Truth described by Jesus as the father of all lies; will do everything to attack the Truth of God’s word. Any false religion promoting his agenda will have uninterrupted success. Why will the devil bother to attack false religion? He will waste no ammunition in attacking false religion. It will be harmful to his cause: “Every kingdom divided against itself is laid waste, and a divided household falls. And if Satan also is divided against himself, how will his kingdom stand?” (Luke 12:17-18).

The way out then is to rise against true religion. And what he attacks in Christianity is the very word God has spoken. This is the devil’s oldest weapon—calling the word of God into question. In the Garden of Eden, he asked: “…Did God actually say…” (Genesis 3:1).

Do you see the similarities today? “Did God actually say…sinners will be punished in hell? “Did God actually say Christ is the only way to the Father? Did God actually say Christ will return again? Did God actually say we should live holy lives? Did God actually say Jesus rose from the dead? Did God actually say…?

If you will call anything about Christianity into question, be sure it is a questioning which will lead to a better understanding of the faith. If yours is to question the veracity of the claims of Christianity, be careful you are not taking sides with the devil and questioning what God has said.

They Are Spiritually Dead

One thing we are sure of of those who challenge and refute God’s true word  is that they are spiritually dead: “The natural person does not accept the things of the Spirit of God, for they are folly to him, and he is not able to understand them because they are spiritually discerned” (1Corinthians 3:14). It takes hearts regenerated by the Spirit of God to comprehend spiritual truth. And until a person’s heart is regenerated, the word of God is foolishness to them.

In fact the Bible declares “The fool says in his heart, “There is no God.” (Psalm 14:1). Fool here doesn’t mean the one who questions or call God’s word to question is a dimwit. Far from it. Actually, some of these people are very intelligent. The fool, as used in the text simply means an “impious person who has no perception of ethical or religious truth

We may all not be professionals trained to defend the faith. Yet, in our own small way, the Bible calls us to contend for the faith (Jude 1:3). And to contend for the faith demands we at least know the basics of what we believe. Peter tells us “…in your hearts honor Christ the Lord as holy, always being prepared to make a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason for the hope that is in you; yet do it with gentleness and respect” (1Peter 3:15). We can’t stop people from questioning what we believe. But we must be ready always to defend our faith.

When they ask “Did God Actually Say…? we must be ready to respond gracefully.

The Deity Of Christ

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John 5:15-29

In a world of religious plurality, every religion and religious leader makes some claims. Of all the claims, Jesus’ were the most astounding. He made many exclusive claims no religious leader ever made. And that got Him killed.

He claimed to be God.

This claim sets Him apart from all other religious leader who ever lived. And if the claim to be God is false, then, it is blasphemous and Jesus cannot be trusted. Looking therefore at the gravity of His claims, either Jesus is God or He is not. There is no middle ground as C.S. Lewis says in his popular work, Mere Christianity:

Either this man[Jesus] was, and is, the Son of God, or else a madman or something worse. You can shut him up for a fool, you can spit at him and kill him as a demon or you can fall at his feet and call him Lord and God

Lord Over The Sabbath

In the opening text, a controversy over the identity of Christ occurred when He healed a man on the Sabbath (vv. 1-9). In verse 16, John tells us this miracle “…was why the Jews were persecuting Jesus, because he was doing these things on the Sabbath“. The Pharisees of Jesus’ day added their own human traditions to the law and with these they sought to keep God’s people in bondage. Their interpretation of the Sabbath forbided doing good to our neighbour. They overlooked  God’s command of love towards ones neighbour. Jesus elsewhere asked them: “Which one of you who has a sheep, if it falls into a pit on the Sabbath, will not take hold of it and lift it out? Of how much more value is a man than a sheep! So it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath.” (Matthew 12:11-12).

Jesus is Lord of the Sabbath (Matthew 12:8, Mark 2:28, Luke 6:5) and His words “My Father is working until now, and I am working.” (John 5:17) brings that out in clear terms. God doesn’t cease working because of the Sabbath. He is actively involved in running His world and taking care of people. The world is not on auto pilot. There is a God at work in sustaining and directing the course of the world. Christ says He is this God.

Christ’s Deity

When Jesus said “My Father is working until now, and I am working”, the Jews who heard Him clearly understood what He meant when He called God His Father and this exacerbated their resolve to kill Him:

This was why the Jews were seeking all the more to kill him, because not only was he breaking the Sabbath, but he was even calling God his own Father, making himself equal with God (v.18).

Now, apart from the charge of breaking the Sabbath, Jesus was also charged with “making himself equal with God” and they understood His claim to be a claim of Deity. Church history is littered with many controversies over the person of Jesus Christ. The Nicea council, for example, in opposition to the arianian heresy which claims Jesus was a created being; stated that “Jesus is begotten, not made, and that His divine nature is of the same essence (homo ousios) with the Father”. ¹ R.C. Sproul explains that

This affirmation declared that the Second Person of the Trinity is one in essence with God the Father. That is, the “being” of Christ is the being of God. He is not merely similar to Deity, but He is Deity”²

One place we see the divinity of Jesus in the text is His assertion of His worthiness of honour just as the Father is worthy of honour: “The Father judges no one, but has given all judgment to the Son, that all may honor the Son, just as they honor the Father. Whoever does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent him”. (vv. 22-24). Jesus is worthy of our worship–honour, just as we honour the Father. You can’t claim to honour or worship God and yet claim to not honour Jesus Christ or accept the claims He made about Himself. To honour God, you must also acknowledge Jesus Christ as the Son of God who was sent by God to die for the salvation of sinners (John 3:16). Again, to acknowledge Jesus as the Son of God is to acknowledge Jesus as God. He is God who was manifested in the flesh (John 1:14)

The Unity of the Godhead.

The doctrine of the Trinity is a fundamental Christian doctrine which speaks of God in three persons who are co-equal and co-eternal in existence. While defending Himself, Christ reveals to us the unity which exists in the Trinity: “Truly, truly, I say to you, the Son can do nothing of his own accord, but only what he sees the Father doing. For whatever the Father does, that the Son does likewise (v.19).

Divine work is Trinitarian in nature and the Godhead is in agreement in all they do. The Father works and Christ works. We see this from creation and in the work of Salvation. In Salvation, we see the active participation of God the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Salvation is Trinitarian: “Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us in Christ with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places” (Ephesians 1:3). As we read further on in Ephesians, we see the Father predestined those who will be saved in the Son. The Son dies for those the Father predestined and then the work of the Son is applied to the heart of the elect into Salvation. Christ tells us He doesn’t work alone. What the Father, who is God does; the Son, who is equally God also does. Christ doesn’t work independently of the Father neither does the Father or the Holy Spirit. Because they are One, they always work in unison.

No claim offends religious people than the claim of Christ’s Deity. But for the Christian, any departure from the Deity of Christ is a departure from truth and from Biblical Christianity.

Notes:

1: R.C. Sproul, Essential Truths of the Christian Faith ( Kindle Edition)

2: ibid